The Covid-19 pandemic caused a spike in antisemitic narratives in a number of European countries. Sometimes the hateful discourses were promoted by populist politicians. Other times, they were backed by individuals from the general public.
Moreover, the health crisis gave rise to conspiracy theories which either put the blame for the pandemic on the Jewish population or described the Jewish financial and the pharmaceutical elites as the masterminds behind a global experiment that arbitrarily imposed Covid-19 medical protocols on the population.
There were also a number of attempts at trivialising, distorting or denying the history of the Holocaust along with inappropriate analogies between the persecution suffered by the Jewish people and the medical restrictions of the Covid-19 pandemic.
The paper describes the socio-political national contexts that produced hateful discourses during the pandemic. Additionally, it identifies the main narratives, channels and actors that played a role in the propagation of online antisemitism in 5 European countries: Estonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain.