The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about a wave of racist, xenophobic and antisemitic statements on social media platforms. All over the world fake news, conspiracy theories and accusations flooded the Internet and the ears and eyes of those who were looking for easy answers to complex problems.
The toxicity reached such high levels that in 2020 the United Nations representative, Secretary General António Gutteres, launched a warning on the «virus of hatred» that was spreading rapidly throughout the world.
This report presents the main triggering events, targets and narratives of hate speech in the most significant moments of the health crisis in Estonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain.
Also, it provides an inventory of the actions carried out at national level to counter hate speech and conspiracy theories.