Refugees and asylum seekers continue to be favorite targets of hate speech on social media, especially in countries with little experience of migration.
The Covid-19 crisis has only made matters worse since many conspiracy theories spread during this time had xenophobic undertones, primarily targeting muslims. Also, the pandemic revived old resentments towards neighbouring ethnic groups, now seen as a threat despite decades or centuries of cohabitation.
This report offers an overview of online xenophobic trends, focusing on predominant narratives and targets of xenophobia and racism in Estonia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. In addition to documenting triggering contexts and prominent xenophobic events from the last 2 years, it also offers recommendations for various stakeholders.